For the district, see Jhelum District. Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan. Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the ancient Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander and King Porus. A city called Bucephala was din en 997 pdf nearby to commemorate the death of Alexander’s horse, Bucephalus.
Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One suggestion is that in ancient days Jhelumabad was known as Jalham. Ahmed Shah Abdali also used “Jheelum” in place of Jhelum and “Harian” for Kharian in his diary. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. The Mughals were Persianized Turks who claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis Khan and strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India. Being very few in number, they adopted a policy of converting the local jats and Gakhars mandatory as recorded in the Baburnama. With the collapse of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, the Durrani empire had occupied the plains but were quickly ousted by the Sikhs.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhelum District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander having been, on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. The British soldier William Connolly won a Victoria Cross for his bravery during this battle.
Mirza Dildar Baig, also known as Khaki Shah, took part in the mutiny at Jhelum and was later celebrated by Indian Nationalists. He was captured and arrested with the remaining mutineers by authorities in Kashmir and later hanged near the river Jhelum. The railway bridge on the river Jhelum was built in 1873 by the British engineer William St. He also made the great Empress Bridge over the river Sutlej.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. As well as being district capital, Jhelum city is also the headquarters of Jhelum Tehsil, the city of Jhelum is administratively subdivided into 7 Union Councils, namely Jhelum-I, Jhelum-II, Jhelum-III, Jhelum-IV, Jhelum-V, Jhelum-VI and Jhelum-VII. 32nd largest city of Pakistan with respect to population. The literacy rate of Jhelum is among the highest in Pakistan. During the past few years, the city has experienced rapid expansion and it has now become a vibrant economic and cultural center.
The old city has narrow streets and crowded bazaars. The main market area of Jhelum is centred around “Shandar Chowk”, “GTS Chowk”, “Muhammadi Chowk” and includes “Main Bazaar”, “Naya Bazaar”, “Raja Bazaar”, “Kinari Bazaar”, “Sarafa Bazaar”, “Chowk-Ehl-e-Hadith” and Soldier Arcade. Some of the main roads of Jhelum City are Civil Line, Railway Road, Old GT Road, Kucheri Road, Iqbal Road and Rohtas Road. East longitude, Jhelum is located a 1-hour and 30 minutes drive from the Capital of Pakistan Islamabad, and 3 hours drive from the heart of Punjab Lahore.