Please forward this error screen to sharedip-23229210134. Introduction to John Dewey’s Philosophy of Education Education is life itself. His idea was that children came to school to do things and live in a community which gave them real, guided experiences which fostered their capacity to contribute to society. Dewey had a gift for suggesting activities that captured the john dewey philosophy of education pdf of what his classes were studying.
Dewey’s education philosophy helped forward the “progressive education” movement, and spawned the development of “experiential education” programs and experiments. Dewey’s philosophy still lies very much at the heart of many bold educational experiments, such as Outward Bound. Read more about John Dewey, father of the experiential education movement. John Dewey’s The Theory of Emotion. American philosopher and regarded as the foremost educator of his day. His educational theories were permeated by his primary ethical value of democracy.
Regarded education in a democracy as a tool to enable the citizen to integrate his or her culture and vocation usefully. To accomplish these aims, Dewey said radical reform was need of both pedagogical methods and curricula. He lectured all over the world and prepared educational surveys for Turkey, Mexico, and the Soviet Union. Instrumentalism believes that truth is an instrument used by human beings to solve their problems. Since problems change, then so must truth.
Since problems change, truth changes, and therefore there can be no eternal reality. American Philosophical Association’s committee on the status and future of the profession. Approved by the APA board of officers, October 1979. Revised in 2007-2008 by the committee on the status and future of the profession.
Revisions approved by the APA board of officers, November 2008. The following statement attempts to present a concise yet compelling vision of the role of philosophy in higher education. This statement is not intended to be exhaustive, and many of its points will apply more to some institutions than to others. Higher education in America frequently undergoes reassessment, external and internal, formal and informal. The following remarks are divided into six major sections. Thinking Critically Texts, lectures, websites, and other media can be invaluable sources of information, concepts, theories, intellectual perspectives, and evaluative viewpoints. Their sheer quantity and diversity, however, raises three problems for their potential consumer—how to discriminate between information and misinformation, how to distinguish between what is central to a particular topic and what is peripheral, and what is likely to be fruitful as opposed to what is barren.
A basic skill is the ability to reconstruct an author’s viewpoint or argument in such a way that the reconstruction is fair to the author and intelligible to someone who is not already aware of the issues involved. In service of the goals of representational accuracy and intelligibility, all philosophy courses emphasize the importance of attending to the author’s thesis and the author’s reasons for espousing the thesis. Taking a responsible critical stance towards a viewpoint requires attitudes of benign skepticism and an openness to being puzzled. A prominent pedagogical model in higher academia is that of active rather than passive learning, according to which students are not conceptualized as receptacles of information but as active participants in the learning process, motivated, frequently, by curiosity. Reading, Writing, Verbal Communication Because many philosophical texts are quite demanding on their readers, one central aim of philosophy courses is to teach students how to read, comprehend, and summarize conceptually difficult material. Students are asked to pay careful attention to conceptual distinctions, to isolate central from peripheral points, to be alert for ambiguities and invalid inferences—in sum, to take an active rather than passive approach to reading. Although it is an accomplishment for a student to be able to write clear expository prose about a philosophical view, many philosophy courses, especially above the introductory level, stress the importance of learning how to do philosophy, which includes formulating, articulating, and defending one’s own views.
No other discipline emphasizes, in the same ways, verbal argumentation and conceptual analysis. The Transmission of Cultural Heritage More so than any other academic discipline, philosophy studies the history of ideas and texts that have profoundly shaped Western thought about basic ethical values, political systems and ideals, human rights, the human good, the nature of knowledge and science, and the fundamental structure of reality. The history of philosophy is virtually the history of our intellectual heritage. In recent years, philosophy departments have become increasingly mindful that the traditional Western canon needs to be located within a plurality of intellectual traditions.
African philosophy, Latin American philosophy, and African-American philosophy. Reality, Knowledge, and Value Inquisitive students can find themselves engaging in metaphysical thought when, for example, they wonder whether the world described by the natural sciences is all that exists, or whether humans have freedom of will if the world is deterministic, or whether there is an afterlife. They raise questions in epistemology when they inquire about the scope and limits of human knowledge: How much, if anything, can be known for certain? Philosophers have thought deeply and systematically about these fundamental questions in a way that no other discipline has. Many institutions have college- or university-wide course requirements for their students, typically aimed at such goals as critical thinking or logical reasoning, sensitivity to values, and awareness of global issues. Philosophy departments are strongly positioned to contribute courses and programs that further these goals.
The study of philosophy helps students to develop both their capacity and their inclination to do critical thinking. Other disciplines also help in fulfilling this function, but philosophy contributes distinctively, intensively, and extensively to a student’s ability to think critically. Many philosophy departments regularly offer a course devoted exclusively to the topic of critical thinking. Philosophy courses can also contribute admirably to curricula that stress more formal modes of logical reasoning, emphasizing the goals of quantitative literacy and symbolic reasoning. Successful courses in the disciplines of mathematics, statistics, and computer science that aim at such a goal succeed by inculcating the skills of reasoning rigorously and logically in students. Philosophy courses in formal logic focus on those skills that are common to all these disciplines. Values Questions of value are among the most important and most difficult questions that students face.
Philosophy courses in ethics, social and political philosophy, philosophy of law, philosophy of medicine, bioethics, environmental ethics, and aesthetics prepare students to be thoughtful, discriminating, and responsible citizens. Philosophy departments standardly offer introductory ethics courses in which students are exposed both to the dominant methods for reasoning about ethical issues and to some array of contemporary moral problems. These courses aim at giving students the conceptual tools necessary for thinking in greater depth about moral problems, an appreciation for competing moral positions, and an opportunity to develop and present their own moral views. Institutions with programs in education and the fine arts, including literature, will find courses in the philosophy of education and aesthetics and the philosophy of art attractive. Relations to Other Areas of Intellectual Inquiry Mention of global issues at the end of the previous section suggests one way in which philosophy can collaborate fruitfully with other disciplines, such as the environmental sciences, economics, political science, and law in the examination of a family of issues. In addition to interdisciplinary collaboration, philosophy can contribute to the examination of a discipline’s foundations. Contributions to Interdisciplinary Programs Interdisciplinary programs are now prominent in many colleges and universities.
Fine arts programs can benefit from courses in aesthetics. History of ancient philosophy courses can contribute to classics programs. European studies programs can benefit from courses in history of medieval and modern philosophy. Philosophy played a pioneering role in the development of feminist theory and continues to have a place both in women’s and gender studies and the more recently developed sexuality studies programs. Some of the most important, ground-level work in cognitive science has been done by philosophers. Foundational Questions and Concepts in the Disciplines While philosophy is not inherently interdisciplinary, philosophy is inherently connected to a very wide array of other disciplines.