The great war pdf


This is an article about the 18th-century war. 21 years, 6 months and 19 days, N. Tsardom of Russia establishes itself as a the great war pdf power in Europe.

Gottorp loses its part of the Duchy of Schleswig to Denmark. Treaty of the Pruth: Azov and area is ceded back to the Ottoman Empire. Russia demolishes strategic castles such as Taganrog. Charles XII of Sweden gets safe passage from Turkey to Sweden in 1711.

175,000 killed by famine, disease and exhaustion. 20,000 Poles, Saxons and 8,000 Danes killed in the larger battles. Charles XII led the Swedish army. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it.

The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea were evicted, with the last city, Riga, falling in 1710. The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and as a new major force in European politics. However, the Swedish state ultimately proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Campaigns on the continent had been proposed on the basis that the army would be financially self-supporting through plunder and taxation of newly gained land, a concept shared by most major powers of the period. The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea. Charles XII of Sweden succeeded Charles XI of Sweden in 1697, aged 14. From his predecessor, he took over the Swedish Empire as an absolute monarch.

Ivan Mazepa was a Ukrainian Cossack hetman who fought for Russia but defected to Charles XII in 1708. Mazepa died in 1710 in Ottoman exile. Peter the Great became Tsar in 1682 upon the death of his elder brother Feodor but did not become the actual ruler until 1689. Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony and another cousin of Charles XII, gained the Polish crown after the death of King John III Sobieski in 1696.

Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway, another cousin of Charles XII, succeeded Christian V in 1699 and continued his anti-Swedish policies. George I of the House of Hanover, elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and, since 1714, king of Great Britain and of Ireland, took the opportunity to connect his landlocked German electorate to the North Sea. By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. Russia was able to mobilize a larger army but could not put all of it into action simultaneously. The Russian mobilization system was ineffective and the expanding nation needed to be defended in many locations. A grand mobilization covering Russia’s vast territories would have been unrealistic.

Peter I tried to raise his army’s morale to Swedish levels. Denmark contributed 20,000 men in their invasion of Holstein-Gottorp and more on other fronts. Norway directed his first attack against Sweden’s ally Holstein-Gottorp. In March 1700, a Danish army laid siege to Tönning. Charles XII of Sweden first focused on attacking Denmark. The Swedish navy was able to outmaneuver the Danish Sound blockade and deploy an army near the Danish capital, Copenhagen.